Philippine Social Science Journal <p style="text-align: justify;">The Philippine Social Science Journal is the official international refereed journal of the Recoletos de Bacolod Graduate School of the University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos that publishes original and quality papers dealing with social science. It also includes anthropology, human geography, demography, business, management, economics, education, psychology, criminal justice, political science, social policy, international relations, sociology, law, media studies, history, health and well-being, and religion.&nbsp; As an international refereed journal, PSSJ continuously commits itself to provide a mentoring space for researchers and scientists to publish original and unpublished scholarly papers that can foster new knowledge and understanding of various societal issues and become the basis for policies and programs to enhance organizational practices and improve the quality of life.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">ISSN: 2672-3107 (Print) and 2704-288X (Online)</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos Graduate School en-US Philippine Social Science Journal 2672-3107 Assessing Students’ Awareness, Attitude, and Practices on Solid Waste Management in a Philippine Catholic School <p>This descriptive-correlational study assessed the level of awareness, degree of attitude, and extent of practice on solid waste management (SWM) of high school students of a Diocesan Catholic School. The data were collected using a researcher-made instrument and analyzed using Mean, Standard Deviation, and Pearson r. The findings of the study unveiled that students exhibited a high level of awareness, a very positive attitude, and a great extent of practice on SWM regardless of sex and academic level. Also, a significant relationship was found between awareness and practice and sex and academic level of students. Meanwhile, no relationship was found between attitude and sex and academic level. In addition, awareness, attitude, and practice on SWM were correlates. Finally, it indicated that awareness and attitude significantly predict the practice of SWM. It further provided baseline information in designing a comprehensive and effective SWM program to mitigate the problem of solid waste in the school.</p> Mark Joseph T. Reyes Dennis V. Madrigal Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 9 20 A Real-Life Context on Adult Survivors’ Perceived Quality of Life, Spirituality, and Resiliency <p>This study aims to determine the real-life context on quality of life, spirituality, and resiliency among natural disaster adult survivors in Negros Oriental and Bohol.&nbsp; The case study method was utilized to investigate the real-life experiences of seven (7) adult survivors, ages 20 and older, who joined in the Silliman University Continuing Calamity Response Program.&nbsp; The narratives revealed a commonality of opinions on their quality of life. General sentiment on the available resources may be present but was inadequate. However, despite their ominous view on the quality of life, the majority of the participants chose to move on. Moreover, most participants indicate experiencing spiritual struggles, but these struggles sustained them. Momentarily, the love and support from their family and the community have allowed them to strive and make life adjustments. With this, balanced and holistic recovery programs should be implemented to obtain optimal well-being, spiritual empowerment, and positive resiliency.</p> Rogen Ferdinand E. Alcantara Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 21 34 The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Group Counseling on the Well-Being of Self-Harming Emerging Adults <p>This study determined the effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) group counseling on the psychological well-being of self-harming emerging adults. It utilized the pretest-posttest control group design. The Self-Harm Inventory (SHI) was used to determine self-harming emerging adults. There were no significant relationships among the socio-demographic variables and the level of severity of self-harm of 30 college students. The intervention was a four session CBT group counseling. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale – 21 (DASS-21) was used to measure psychological well-being. There were eight participants in the experimental group and nine participants in the control group. The results of the study revealed significant differences in the psychological well-being of the experimental group and the control group after the intervention. The findings suggest implications in school guidance and counseling programs to address the mental health issues of emerging adults.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lisa Anna M. Gayoles Janette Raissa A. Magno Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 35 52 Spiritual Well-Being and Resiliency of the Diocesan Seminarians of Antique <p>Spiritual well-being is integral in seeking meaning and purpose in life. Related to this is resiliency, which is a dynamic attribute of bouncing back from difficult situations. Thus, this descriptive-correlational study determines the degree of spiritual well-being and the level of resiliency of the diocesan seminarians of Antique. Spiritual Well-being Scale and Resilience Scale standardized tests were used. The findings indicate that the degree of spiritual well-being of seminarians is high which indicates that the seminarians possess a certain degree of satisfaction and manifest a clear sense of purpose in life. On the other hand, the level of resiliency of the diocesan seminarians of Antique is "on the low end" which signifies that as a whole, they might be experiencing some depression and anxiety in their lives. Finally, there is a significant relationship between spirituality and resiliency. The study recommends designing an enhanced career guidance program for the formation of the seminarians.</p> Eric L. Legada Dennis V. Madrigal Ma. Wilma M. Maravilla Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 53 69 Patient Satisfaction and Challenges of the Health Care Services of Negros Occidental Provincial Medical Clinic <p>The Medical Clinic provides outpatient health services to the employees of the Provincial Government of Negros Occidental. Patient satisfaction gauges the quality of health care services. This study assessed the level of patient satisfaction on the health services and identified the challenges encountered by patients. Also, it compared the level of patient satisfaction in terms of their demographic profile. This descriptive-comparative design used a researcher-made survey questionnaire which was administered to 307 employees. The study revealed that the overall level of satisfaction was very high. A significant difference was found in the level of patient satisfaction when respondents were categorized according to sex and age. The most significant challenge encountered by patients was insufficient medicines and medical supplies. The findings were used as baseline data in designing a Clinic Manual of Procedures and Holistic Health Program for the Provincial Health Office.&nbsp;</p> Rowel A. Gerzon, M.D. John Clifford P. Salugsugan Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 70 81 Evaluation of a Training of Trainers Program on Food Safety and Nutrition Security <p>Foodborne diseases (FBDs) remain a serious human health problem, and food safety plays an essential role in addressing this public health issue. This study aimed at evaluating the training of trainers program on food safety and nutrition security using a qualitative descriptive approach. The training exposed the participants to food safety topics in food processing and preservation with an emphasis on the nature of food safety hazards and the personal hygiene of food handlers in food preparation. The new trainers then organized and conducted actual seminar-workshops in their respective communities. The results of the evaluation indicate that the primary driver of the success of the program was institutional support by the local government partners. Overall, the program was able to achieve its ultimate goal of capacitating a group of local trainers on food safety in hopes of addressing the problem of FBDs through a cascade of training.</p> Alvyn Klein A. Mana-ay Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 82 92 Nutrition Security through Sustainable Home Garden Food Production Initiatives <p>Food security is achieved through food availability, economic and physical access, proper food utilization, and food stability. Safeguarding the access to sufficient food is more a problem than availability for the most malnourished group as food insecure households favor quantity over quality to avoid hunger.&nbsp; The Nutrition and Dietetics Department of Silliman University, in partnership with the local government units of San Jose and Amlan in Negros Oriental, launched the Nutrition and Food Security Training Program to reduce the problem of malnutrition.&nbsp; One of the components of the program is sustainable home garden food production, which emphasized the role of home gardening to improve access to food quality, thereby addressing nutrition security.&nbsp; This qualitative study seeks to describe the views of the participants on home vegetable gardening to address food and nutrition security.&nbsp; A total of 20 participants were invited to participate voluntarily in this qualitative study.&nbsp; A focus group discussion was used as a qualitative tool. As a result, participants realized that having a home garden can improve nutrient consumption, provide economic benefits, and address food security of the household.&nbsp; Food security was tenable within their homes through concerted efforts, patience, and love.&nbsp; Barangay policymakers were encouraged to formulate legislation and include in their budget the promotion of home gardens to improve the nutritional status of their constituencies.</p> Jin Honculada-Genove Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 93 100 Guided Quick Labs and Academically Challenged Learners’ Predicting, Observing, and Inferring Skills <p>This quasi-experimental study aimed at determining the effects of guided quick labs and traditional science laboratory activities on academically-challenged Grade 10 learners' predicting, observing, and inferring skills. The subjects in this study were the 60 academically-challenged Grade 10 learners of Antique National School in San Jose, Antique. The subjects were divided into two groups, the traditional and the quick labs. Pretest and post-test ware used to measure the predicting, observing, and inferring skills of the learners before and after exposure to both laboratory activities. The results showed that the predicting, observing, and inferring skills of the academically-challenged Grade 10 learners in both groups were comparable at the start of the six (6)-week intervention. After the intervention, the results revealed that both groups were still comparable. The findings proved that both types of laboratory activities have a similar effect in predicting and observing skills and is best improving the learners' inferring skills.</p> Martin John M. Salanatin Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 101 111 Gender-Responsiveness and Its Influence on Gender Equality and Economic Performance of State Colleges and Universities <p>State Colleges and Universities (SUCs) are expected to take initiatives to promote gender and development. This study aims to assess gender-responsiveness and its influence on gender equality and the economic performance of SUCs in Negros Occidental, Philippines.&nbsp; The descriptive research design was employed and utilized a researcher-made questionnaire to gather data from randomly selected 36 administrators and 236 employees of SUCs.&nbsp; Using the mean, descriptive results showed high gender responsiveness and a great extent of influence on gender equality and the economic performance of SUCs. Also, the results of the Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis revealed that significant differences occurred in the level of gender responsiveness and the extent of influence on gender equality among SUCs. Employing Spearman rho, significant relationships were found among gender responsiveness, influence on gender equality, and economic performance. Higher gender-responsiveness may lead to a greater influence on the promotion of gender equality and economic performance.</p> Ma. Teresa B. Ballados Joseph G. Guevarra Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 112 126 Civil Society Organization Participation in Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Implementation <p>Civil society organizations (CSOs) have been at the forefront of advocating agrarian reform principles that engender hope for rural development and nation-building. This study assessed the extent of participation of CSOs and the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) in the areas of claim folder (CF) documentation, land survey activities, and Certificate of Land Ownership Award (CLOA) distribution and installation. This descriptive-comparative and correlational research used a researcher-made survey questionnaire administered to randomly selected implementers, key leaders of CSOs, and farmer-beneficiaries. Using descriptive and inferential analyses, the study yielded a great extent result for both participation and implementation of CARP. A significant difference was found in the areas of assessment for both participation and implementation. Also, there is a significant relationship between participation of CSOs and implementation of CARP. The study recommends strengthening tripartism initiatives in the implementation of the program.</p> Kent John A. Lorayna Merlita V. Caelian Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 127 141 Liberating Farmers from Tenancy Bondage: The Land and Agrarian Reform Programs of Ramon Magsaysay (1954-1957) <p>The past economic colonial policies in the Philippines created severe issues for land tenancy and distribution patterns. When Magsaysay won the presidency in 1953, his administration carried the banner of land and agrarian reform as its core policy. The paper investigated how Magsaysay Administration’s agrarian reform policies addressed the needs of the peasants. Further, the study presents the land and agrarian reform programs enacted by the Magsaysay Administration, from conceptualization to implementation, their results, and efficacy in easing the tenancy problem of farmers. Using the historical method, the study showed that Magsaysay's land and agrarian reform program provided security of tenure to the farmers. It enabled them to become more independent, self-reliant, and responsible citizens. Ultimately, the program succeeded in protecting the farmers from the uncertainty and threat of land deprivation and, in effect, curtailed insurgency. Magsaysay's program also proved influential to succeeding administrations in the design and construction of their land and agrarian reform laws.</p> Eric F. Portera Antonio C. Hila Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 142 154 Rizal, The Social Portraitist <p>This paper attempts to direct on how to understand the two famous novels of Rizal – <em>Noli Me Tangere</em> and <em>El Filibusterismo</em> – within the context of Rizal's intent to expose the social ills of his time. With the use of Charles Derbyshire's translations of <em>The Social Cancer</em> and <em>The Reign of Greed</em>, the researchers explain and show the essential details of the novels and how they reflect historical, social realities as exposed in literary terms – using allegory as synthesis. It includes a re-assessment of the characters in both novels, the key places in the story, conflicts, and how these conflicts are resolved towards the end. The study conveys how Rizal expressed his reflections on and critique of the Philippine society through character and institutional symbolisms. Using historical hermeneutics as a method of the study, the researcher will keep an eye on the available sources and collections of literature, thereby putting the novels in their proper contexts, which properly define Rizal as a novelist and a social critic.</p> Emmanuel Jeric A. Albela Antonio C. Hila Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 155 172 Last Decade of the Recollects in San Carlos Borromeo Parish, Negros Occidental (1965-1975) <p>The controversial cession of San Carlos Borromeo Parish in 1975 by the Augustinian Recollects to the diocesan clergy was significant. Unknown by the present generation, the story is recalled in detail forty-five years after. Rich in primary sources and personal interviews with Recollects and diocesan priests, both protagonists, and eyewitnesses were utilized. The narrative objectively recounts the Recollect ministry in San Carlos. It then focuses on the diocesan consultors' meeting in October 1974 that sanctioned the takeover despite the lack of priests, the uninformed Recollect superiors' vicarial meeting on the reshuffle of curates in November 1974, and the persistent takeover rumors in San Carlos since October 1974. The official cession—that included Calatrava and Barangay Quezon parishes—happened on 6 January 1975. Reasons are revealed and discussed. In retrospect, the early beginnings of San Carlos and its creation as a diocese in 1988 have reminisced. Highlighted is Bishop Epifanio Surban's heartfelt gratitude for the Recollect evangelization effort.</p> Emmanuel Luis A. Romanillos Copyright (c) 2020 Philippine Social Science Journal 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 3 1 173 190